Ki Hajar Dewantara
He was born in the city of Yogyakarta, on May 2, 1889, birthday is then celebrated every year by the Indonesian nation as National Education Day. He himself was born to a noble family, he was the son of Soerjaningrat , who was the grandson of Pakualam III. Born as a nobleman then he was entitled to an education for the nobility.
Start School and Become a Journalist
He first attended Els Elementary School for European / Dutch children as well as nobles. After the ELS he then continued his education at STOVIA, a school created for the education of indigenous doctors in the city of Batavia during the colonial period of the Dutch East Indies, now known as the faculty of medicine University of Indonesia. Despite attending STOVIA school, Ki Hadjar Dewantara did not finish because he was ill at that time.
Ki Hadjar Dewantara tends to be more interested in the world of journalism or writing, as evidenced by working as journalists in several newspapers at that time, among others, Sediotomo, Midden Java, De Expres, Oetoesan Indies, Kaoem Moeda, Tjahaja Timoer, and Poesara . Writing style Ki Hadjar Dewantara also tend to sharply reflect the spirit of anti-colonial.
Enter Budi Utomo Organization
The establishment of Budi Utomo organization as a social and political organization and then encourage Ki Hadjar Dewantara to join in it, In Budi Utomo he acts as a propaganda in awakening indigenous peoples about the importance of the spirit of togetherness and unity as the nation of Indonesia. The emergence of Douwes Dekker who then invited Ki Hadjar Dewantara to establish an organization called the famous Indische Partij.
In exile in the Netherlands then Ki Hadjar Dewantara started aspiring to advance his people, namely the natives. he managed to get a diploma of education known as Europeesche Akte or a prestigious education diploma in the Netherlands. This diploma helped him to establish the educational institutions he would make in Indonesia.
In the Netherlands he also gained influence in developing his own educational system.
In 1913, Ki Hadjar Dewantara subsequently married a noble descendant named Raden Ajeng Sutartinah who was the daughter of the paku alaman, Yogyakarta.
From his marriage to R.A Sutartinah, Ki Hadjar Dewantara then blessed with two children named Ni Sutapi Asti and Ki Subroto Haryomataram. During his exile, his wife always accompany and assist all activities of her husband, especially in terms of education.
Go back to Indonesia and set up Taman Siswa
Then in 1919, he returned to Indonesia and immediately joined as a teacher at the school founded by his brother. The teaching experience he received at the school then used it to create a new concept of teaching methods at the school he founded himself on July 3, 1922, the school was named Nationaal Onderwijs Instituut Tamansiswa which we came to know as Taman Siswa.
At the age of 40 years old, the character who is known by the original name Raden Mas Soewardi Soerjaningrat officially changed his name to Ki Hadjar Dewantara, this he means that he can be close to the natives at that time.
The slogan of Ki Hadjar Dewantara
He also makes a famous slogan that until now used in the education of Indonesia, namely:
Ing ngarso sung tulodo (in front of example).
Ing madyo mangun karso, (in the middle of the spirit).
Tut Wuri Handayani (behind giving encouragement).
Government Award To Ki Hadjar Dewantara
After the independence of the Indonesian Nation in 1945, Ki Hadjar Dewantara was then appointed by President Soekarno as the Indonesian Minister of Education, now known as the Minister of Education. Thanks to his services, he was then awarded the Honorary Doctorate from Gadjah Mada University.
In addition he was also awarded the title as the Father of National Education and also as a National Hero by President Soekarno at that time for his services in pioneering the education of the Indonesian nation. In addition, the government also set the date of his birth which is on May 2 is commemorated every year as National Education Day. Ki Hadjar Dewantara died on April 26, 1959 in Yogyakarta and was buried in Taman Wijaya Brata. His face immortalized the government into a 20,000 rupiah denomination.